AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 TERM 1

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AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 TERM 1

AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 FIRST TERM LESSON PLAN SCHEME OF WORK

DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE

CONTENT

  1. Definition of Agriculture
  2. Importance of Agriculture to the Individual
  3. Importance of Agriculture to the Society
  4. Importance of Agriculture to the Nation
  5. Types of Agriculture based on Levels of Production: Subsistence & Commercial Agriculture

 

Definition of Agriculture

Agriculture can be defined as the art and science which deals with the growing of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use.

Importance of Agriculture

Agriculture plays an important role in the development of all nations. It used to be the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy and that of other developing countries. The importance of agriculture can be grouped into three categories:

Importance of Agriculture to the Individual

  1. Provision of food: This is the most important contribution of agriculture to man because food is required for our survival. People need food in order to live. Farm animals also need food. The food could be meat, eggs, and milk from farm animals and products from many different crops such as yam, rice, maize, etc.
  2. Provision of shelter materials: This helps to protect man from adverse weather conditions and predators. Agriculture is a source of materials used in building houses. Materials such as timber and leaves are used in building houses.
  3. Provision of materials for clothing: Agriculture provides fiber, silk, and cotton from plants for textile production, hides, and skins as well as wool from sheep for clothing, shoes, belts, and bags.
  4. Provision of income: Agriculture provides income for farmers when they sell crop products like yam, rice, plantain, cocoa, etc, and farm products like meat, milk, eggs, and skin.
  5. Provision of transportation: Some farm animals or livestock are used as means of transportation and carrying of loads particularly in the north such as horses, donkeys, and camels.
  6. Provision of medicine: Some plants that have medicinal values such as the Neem tree, ginger, lemongrass, etc. are used as drugs to cure ailments. E.g neem and lemongrass leaves are used to cure malaria. Ginger is used to curing catarrh, etc.

NB: Agriculture meets the three basic needs of man.

All

Importance of Agriculture to the Society

  1. Provision of employment: This is the main contribution of Agriculture to society. It is the largest income-generating sector in Nigeria. It employs about 60-70% of the people. The majority of people who reside in rural areas are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture provides employment for people in two ways:

(i) As a means of self-employment for those directly involved in crop and animal husbandry, processing and marketing of produce, etc.

(ii) As a source of paid employment such as in the Ministry of Agriculture, schools and colleges, research institutes, banks, and agro-allied industries.

  1. Development of rural areas: Agriculture brings about the construction of good roads, provision of pipe-borne water, electricity, and school for the children of farmers in the villages.
  2. Provision of recreation and sport: Some farm animals provide a form of amusement and others are used for sporting activities. It leads to the establishment of game reserves and parks (e.g. Obudu Cattle Ranch, Yankari Game Reserve, etc., and bullfights, polo games, horse races, cockfights, fishing festivals, etc.
  3. Production of crops and animal products used during cultural and religious ceremonies: Almost all Nigerian tribes present kola-nut and bitter kola during a marriage ceremony. Some crops and animal products e.g palm oil, alligator pepper, honey, fish, fowl, cattle, etc. are used during naming, marriage, and burials. Specific animals are also used for sacrifices and burial ceremonies. For instance, the dog is used when worshiping Ogun, (the god of iron). Ram is also used during Muslim festivals while cattle are used during burials.

Importance of Agriculture to the Nation/Economy of the Country

  1. Provision of foreign exchange earnings: This is the most important contribution of agriculture to the economy of the country. It provides foreign exchange or currency such as the dollar, pound sterling when agricultural products such as cocoa, groundnuts, rubber, coffee, palm produce, etc. are exported to other countries.
  2. Provision of the market for industrial goods: Agriculture provides a ready market for industrial goods such as farm machinery, chemicals, fertilizers, storage, and processing facilities.
  3. Source of revenue for the government: Government receives a lot of revenue from the export of agricultural products through export duties and tax. The revenue is used to service another sector of the economy. It also boosts internally generated revenue of the government (taxes collected from the farmers, agro-based industries, foresters, etc).
  4. 4. Provision of food for the working population: Agriculture helps to provide the needed nourishment for the working population thereby, boosting their productivity.
  5. Provision of raw materials for industries: Agriculture supplies various industries with raw materials for their continued existence or production. Industries that depend on agriculture for their materials are called agro-allied or agro-based industries.

Examples of Agro-allied Industries and their Materials Used

S/N Type of
agro-allied industries
Raw materials used Examples of
finished products
1 Feedmill Groundnut,

cereals e.g maize

Vegetable oil,

Groundnut cake, etc.

2 Tyre Rubber latex Tube, tyre, hoses, etc.
3 Paper industry Pulp wood Books, newsprints,

cardboards, envelopes, etc.

4 Starch Cassava Starch
5 Beverages Cocoa, coffee, tea Beverages e.g.

Milo, Bournvita etc.

 

EVALUATION

  1. Define the term ’Agriculture’.
  2. Apart from supply of raw materials to industries, list four other contributions of agriculture to nation building.
  3. Agriculture helps to meet the three basic needs of man. Name them.

AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 FIRST TERM LESSON PLAN SCHEME OF WORK

TYPES OF AGRICULTURE BASED ON THE LEVELS OF PRODUCTION

CONTENT

  1. Meaning and Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture
  2. Meaning and Characteristics of Commercial Agriculture

AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 FIRST TERM LESSON PLAN SCHEME OF WORK

Subsistence Agriculture

Meaning of Subsistence Agriculture

Subsistence agriculture is defined as the type of agriculture which involves the production of crops and animals by a farmer to feed himself and his family. He produces food for the consumption of the family with little or nothing left for sale.

Characteristics of Subsistence Agriculture

  1. It requires small capital/finance.
  2. Mixed cropping is mostly practiced.
  3. There is limited used of agro-chemicals e.g. pesticides and fertilizers.
  4. Unimproved varieties of crops and breeds of animals are used.
  5. There is little or no surplus for sale.
  6. It involves the used of crude/traditional tools such as hoes, machetes/cutlasses.
  7. It involves mainly the production of food crops.
  8. It is done on small scattered land.
  9. It uses family/unskilled labour.
  10. Yield/output is low.

AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 FIRST TERM LESSON PLAN SCHEME OF WORK

Commercial Agriculture

Meaning of Commercial Agriculture

Commercial agriculture is the type of agriculture which involves the production of crops and animals in large quantities for sale.

Characteristics of Commercial Agriculture

  1. Sole/mono-cropping is usually practiced.
  2. Yields are high.
  3. It requires large capital.
  4. Most operations of commercial agriculture are mechanized.
  5. It makes used of hired/paid and skilled labour.
  6. Improved varieties of crops and breeds of animals are used.
  7. It involves the cultivation of large hectares of land.
  8. It uses agro-chemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers.
  9. Storage and processing facilities are required.
  10. Produce is mainly for sale or export.

EVALUATION

  1. Explain the following: (i) Subsistence Agriculture (ii) Commercial Agriculture
  2. Give three characteristics each of subsistence and commercial agriculture.
  • or

TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE LOCALITIES

CONTENT

  1. Pastoral Farming
  2. Arable Farming
  3. Mixed Farming
  4. Taungya Farming
  5. Fish Farming
  6. Livestock Farming
  7. Shifting Cultivation
  8. Land Rotation/Bush Fallowing
  9. Crop Rotation

AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 FIRST TERM LESSON PLAN SCHEME OF WORK

1. Pastoral Farming

This system involves the rearing of animals that feed/graze on forage crops (grasses and legumes), such as goats, sheep and cattle. Pastoral farming could take any of these three forms:

  • Ranching
  • Nomadic herding
  • Ley farming

Ranching

In this system, large numbers of animals have kept o a large expanse of enclosed land which may be under natural vegetation or planted pasture. The animals are allowed to move freely and graze within the confinement (Ranch). It is possible to adopt rotational grazing, especially where the ranch is divided into sections/paddocks. An example of a ranch in Nigeria is Obudu Cattle Ranch in Cross River state.

Advantages of Ranching

  1. Pasture and water are available all through the year.
  2. The animals are better managed and more protected from pests, diseases, and death.
  3. Good quality animals are produced due to a proper breeding program.

Disadvantages of Ranching

  1. It is expensive to manage a ranch.
  2. It will be difficult to give individual attention to each animal kept on the ranch.
  3. The outbreak of disease may wipe out the entire stock.

Nomadic Herding

In this system, the pastoralist/herdsman moves or roam from one place to another with his animals especially cattle in search of green pasture and water supply. This is mostly practiced by the Fulani of Northern Nigeria. They move their animals southward during the dry season when food and water are very scarce.

Advantages of Nomadic Herding

  1. Animals are able to exercise their bodies as they move about.
  2. The animals dropping improve the fertility of the soil.
  3. It requires no sophisticated building and equipment.

Disadvantages Nomadic Herding

  1. Irregular supply of food and water to the animals.
  2. Mating is not controlled, which leads to producing poor quality animals.
  3. There is high incidence of pests and diseases.
  4. Migrating animals may destroy crops which have often led to clashes between herdsmen and crops farmers.

Ley Farming

This is a system of farming which involves the planting of forage crops and food crops in alternation. The forage crops may include grasses, legumes and other plants acceptable to farm animals while the food crops may be maize, rice, cowpea etc. The pasture is grown for about 2-4 years and then the land is tilled and used to cultivate other crops. It is also known as rotational pasture.

Advantages of Ley Farming

  1. Food crops serves as food for the farmers and pasture grasses and legumes are used to feed animals.
  2. Animal droppings serve as manure for the arable crops.
  3. There is efficient use of land.

Disadvantages of Ley Farming

  1. High cost of fencing.
  2. Overgrazing can lead to trampling and destruction of soil structure, thereby leading to erosion.
  3. It requires a lot of skills and techniques to succeed

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