BASIC SCIENCE JSS2 FIRST TERM

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BASIC SCIENCE JSS2 FIRST TERM

JSS2 BASIC SCIENCE FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

  • LIVING THINGS (HABITAT)
  • ADAPTATION OF LIVING THINGS TO THEIR HABITAT
  • AIR POLLUTION
  • UNIQUENESS OF HUMAN BEINGS
  • MEASUREMENT OF GROWTH & DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES
  • HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
  • HUMAN DEVELOPMENT (II)
  • CHANGES IN MATTER
  • CHANGES IN LIVING THINGS
  • CHANGES IN NON-LIVING THINGS

Week 1 

Topic: Living Things (Habitat)

Introduction

Every living organism, whether plant or animal, has a particular place where it normally lives. There are those that live on land and those that live in water. The kind of place or environment where an organism normally lives is called its HABITAT. Specifically, it means the home where an organism inhabits. Every organism is able to adjust itself to its habitat in order to survive.

Habitat is an environment in which an organism naturally lives. It is an area where physical and chemical constituents required by a particular organism are met.

Habitat may be small such as the school field or large such as an ocean in the case of a whale.

Types of Habitats

  • Aquatic Habitat: It is a water environment in which organisms live naturally. It includes ponds, streams, rivers, oceans etc. It is sub-divided into:
  1. Marine (Saltwater)
  2. Estuarine (Mixture of salt and fresh water)
  3. Freshwater (Water that does not contain salt)

Organisms that live in the aquatic environment include crabs, salamander, shrimps, fish, whales, spirogyra etc.

  • Terrestrial Habitat: is simply the land environment where certain organisms e.g. snails, grasshoppers, etc. live naturally. The nature of terrestrial habitat is influenced by soil and rain. Terrestrial habitat is divided into the following:

All

  1. Marsh: is a low land soil that is usually flooded.
  2. Rain forest: is a type of terrestrial habitat that has scattered tall trees of about 40cm or above with a storey layer having shrubs and herbs.
  3. Grassland: is a type of terrestrial habitat that is covered with grasses and it includes temperate grassland, savanna grassland and meadow grassland.
  4. Arid land: include the deserts both series and hot deserts.

Organisms found in terrestrial habitats are kangaroo, camel, termites, snakes, lizard, etc. Plants that live in terrestrial habitats include hornet wort, lilies and duckweed.

  • Arboreal Habitat: this is a habitat that involves tree trunks and treetops. This is an environment where organisms with the ability to fly, climb and grasp are found e.g. snakes, monkeys and birds.

Questions

  1. _____  is simply the land environment where certain organisms e.g. snails, grasshopper, etc. live in naturally
  2. ____ is any environment in which an organism naturally lives.
  3. ____ include the deserts both series and hot deserts
  4. ____ is a habitat that involves tree trunks and treetops

Week 2 Basic Science JSS2 First Term Lesson Notes, plan / Scheme of work

Topic: Adaptation of Living Things to their Habitat

Characteristics of Organisms Found in Aquatic Habitat e.g Fish

Organisms in this habitat are adapted to their habitat through:

  1. The use of gills for respiration.
  2. Possession of well-streamlined body.
  3. The use of fins and web digits for locomotion e.g. fish.
  4. The ability to feed by filter method.
  5. Possession of lateral line to detect danger e.g. tilapia fish.
  6. The ability to float due to intercellular air space.
  7. Possession of a mucilaginous cover that protects some plants e.g. spirogyra.

Characteristics of Organisms Found in Terrestrial Habitat

  1. Organisms in this habitat are adapted to their habitat through:
  2. Organisms could be herbivores, such as grasscutters, squirrels or carnivores, such as leopards and lions.
  3. Possession of distinct colouration with the environment helps them to stay away from their predators.
  4. Possession of four limbs, two forelimbs and two hind limbs.
  5. Terrestrial plants that are drought evading complete their life cycles within a few months.
  6. When there is no rainfall desert trees shed their leaves to reduce the rate of transpiration.
  7. The roots of most terrestrial plants are long and twisted to enable them to absorb more water.
  8. Some plants grow thorns in place of leaves as a defence from herbivores.
  9. Possession of exoskeleton (chitins) for protection and support.

Characteristics of Organisms Found in Arboreal Habitat

  1. Organisms in this habitat are adapted to their habitat through:
  2. Possession of wings for flight.
  3. Possession of two legs for movement before flying.
  4. Possession of long hind limbs enables them to climb trees.
  5. The ability of plants in this habitat to possess climbing roots while others have tendrils.

Questions

  1. One of these is not an adaption for aquatic organisms
    possession of two legs
    b. possession of well-streamlined body
    c. the use of fins and web digits for locomotion
    d. the ability to feed by filter method
  2. The ability of plants in this habitat to possess climbing roots while others have tendrils is peculiar to the
    Aquatic habitat
    b. Arboreal habitat
    c. Terrestrial habitat
    d. None of the above
  3. List three Organisms found in the Terrestrial habitat
  4. Organisms in aquatic habitat have ____ bodies
    floating
    b. streamlined
    c. straight
    d. round

Week 3 Basic Science JSS2 First Term Lesson Notes, plan / Scheme of work

Topic: Air Pollution

Meaning of Air Pollution

Air pollution is the process of making air unsuitable for breathing by both plants and animals.

Air-borne solids that pollute the air include, dust released by industrial processes, lead dust e.g. lead (II) bromide is released from the exhaust pipes of moving engines using leaded petrol. The release of poisonous gases such as sulphur (IV) oxide, carbon (II) oxide, hydrogen sulphide from exhaust pipes of engines causes air pollution. In our homes, we use firewood, coal, etc. as fuel. Gases are released from these fuels into the air causing pollution.

Sources of Air Pollution

The main air pollutants include:

  1. Tiny solids/dust particles.
  2. Oxides of carbon from burning coal smoke.
  3. Oxides of sulphur and nitrogen from burning coal, crude oil.
  4. Gaseous hydrocarbon and chlorofluorocarbons.
  5. Noise/sound from blaring of loudspeakers.

Consequences of Air Pollution

Pollutants and their effects include:

Kinds of Air Pollutants Effects on Plants and Animals
Smoke, soot and dust from the burning of coal and firewood When inhaled, they damage respiratory organs-lungs. They are also harmful to plants.
Lead dust If inhaled, it accumulates in the body and becomes toxic to the body. Also destroys farm produce.
Smog (Mixture of air and smoke) It reduces visibility and causes respiratory diseases in animals.
Oxides of carbon, especially carbon (II) oxide and carbon (IV) oxide Reduce the amount of oxygen carried by the blood to the body causing brain damage at high concentrations. Plants make use of carbon (IV) oxide and water in the presence of sunlight to manufacture carbohydrates in a process known as photosynthesis.
Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur When dissolve in rainwater forms acid rain which is harmful to plants and animals. They also cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tissue.
Hydrocarbons found in exhaust pipes of cars It can cause cancer.

Control of Air Pollution

  1. Air pollution can be controlled by using anti-pollution devices by motor vehicles, aircraft, ships, etc.
  2. Producing more efficient combusting fuel.
  3. Educating people on the dangers of air pollution.
  4. Enacting laws that will punish organizations and individuals whose activities pollute water.

ASSESSMENT

  1. Define Air Pollution?
  2. List FIVE sources of Air pollution?
  3. List FOUR control of Air Pollution?

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