BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 3 SECOND TERM

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BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 3 SECOND TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 3 SECOND TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

Week: One Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Plan, Scheme of Work

Class: Primary Three

Topic: Revision of Air

Behavioral objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. describe wind as air in motion.
  2. describe their feelings when the wind blows against their bodies.
  3. explains the effects of air.
  4. lists the uses of air

 

Instructional material/Reference material: Pieces of paper, Feathers, Pictures of windmill, Pictures/charts showing the effects of wind.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the air in their environment.

Content: Air

Air: is defined as a breeze; a gentle wind, it is understood as a gaseous mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and various trace gases Air is an invisible form of matter that flows freely and is in the gaseous state. (usually) The apparently open space above the ground which this substance fills, (historical) formerly thought to be limited by the firmament now considered surrounded by the near-vacuum of outer space. It can be felt.

TYPES OF AIR

  1. Cold Air -: which is found anywhere behind a cold front. When a cold front moves through an area the temps rapidly drop especially during the late fall and early spring.
  2. Warm Air -: warm air is best found behind a warm front. When a warm front moves through an area the temps will gradually warm from the South to the North.
  3. Moist Air -: This air is best defined as having moisture present in it. Anything greater than 1% would be described as being moist. The best places to find this type of air are along the Southeast part of the United States due to the moisture from the Gulf of Mexico.
  4. Dry Air -: Dry air is described as having less than 1% of moisture in it. The best location to find this type of air is in the Southwest part of the United States and also in the Middle East.

EFFECTS OF AIR

  1. Air cause rain or dew to dry more quickly thus reducing the risk of fungal infection.
  2. Air also affects the thermal conditions of a vineyard i.e it reduces heat.
  3. Air also supports combustion i.e it helps the fire to burn quickly and easily.
  4. When it is blown in the night it feels cool in the body.
  5. When blown in the day it feels hot or warm in the body especially in the Northern area.

USES OF AIR

  1. It is a significant supplier of energy -: all living plants and animals depend on oxygen to generate valuable energy.
  2. It is a conducting medium for sound -: we can hear the sound of speech or noise, etc. only when there is air around us. It happens because the wind is a good sound conductor. Without a medium, we will not be able to hear anything and won’t be able to produce the sounds.
  3. It is responsible for the pollination of crops: plants produce male gametes in pollen grains. These pollen grains move from the male flower to the female flower and combine with female gametes, which is called pollination. This may occur in flowers growing on the same plant or between remote plants with the help of wind or air power.
  4. It keeps the balance of the temperature on the Earth’s surface when it’s summer. When the sun strongly heats the Earth’s surface, the surface temperature of the ground is growing rapidly, but it grows slowly on the surface of the ocean or sea (this is because a solid substance is heated faster than liquid water). Thus, the air that is warmed at the Earth’s surface rises up, and the cold one from the sea surface transfers to the surface of the ground which minimizes the temperature rise.
  5. It helps in drying (moisture balance): the ground being wet from the rain dries due to air. On a wet surface, it is very moist. Thus, the moist layers are replaced by less humid or dry layers of air. The new dry layer on the surface absorbs moisture from the wet surface, and the cycle continues until the surface is dry.

Evaluation: The teacher asked questions on what has been taught.

  1. describe wind as air in motion.
  2. describe their feelings when the wind blows against their bodies.
  3. explains the effects of air.
  4. lists the uses of air

All

Week: Two Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Plan, Scheme of Work

Class: Primary Three

Topic: Ways of contacting substance in the Air

Behavioral objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. discuss air as a means through which harmful substances are taken into the body.
  2. explains environmental pollution.
  3. explains how harmful substances are carried into the air by smoking.
  4. explains how harmful substances are carried into the air by swallowing contaminated water.

Instructional material/Reference material: Unmaintained toilets in the school and soaker ways in the localities, Pictures, and charts of people smoking, Pictures of children drinking contaminated water.

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the air, it effects, and uses

Content: Ways of contacting substance in the Air

There are diverse ways of contaminating substances in the air;

  1. By environmental pollution.
  2. By smoking.
  3. By swallowing contaminated water.
  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: Environmental pollution is defined as “the contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental processes are adversely affected.
  5. SMOKING: During smoking carbon monoxide/carbon(1) oxide is released into the air which reduces the level of oxygen and it affects breathing and in which the smoker is liable to die young. In addition, the longer you are around secondhand smoke, the greater the level of harmful substances in your body. As a result, you might have an increased risk of developing smoking-related disorders, including Lung cancer and lung disease,
  6. SWALLOWING CONTAMINATED WATER: Infectious diseases can be spread through contaminated water. Some of these water-borne diseases are Typhoid, Cholera, Paratyphoid Fever, Dysentery, Jaundice, Amoebiasis and Malaria. Chemicals in the water also have negative effects on our health.

Evaluation: The teacher asked questions on what has been taught.

  1. discuss air as a means through which harmful substances are taken into the body.
  2. explains environmental pollution.
  3. explains how harmful substances are carried into the air by smoking.
  4. explains how harmful substance are carried into the air by swallowing contaminated water.

Week: Three Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Plan, Scheme of Work

Class: Primary Three

Topic: Example of diseases/sickness caused by a harmful substance

 

Behavioural objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. explains the meaning of disease/sickness
  2. discusses examples of diseases and sickness caused by harmful substances.
  3. explains symptoms and prevention of diseases and sickness.
  4. explains the treatment of the diseases/sickness.

Instructional material/Reference material: Pictures or charts of someone sick caused by harmful substances, Visit a nearby clinic

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with the ways of contacting substances in the environment it affects.

Content: Diseases and sickness

DISEASES: An abnormal condition of a human, animal, or plant that causes discomfort or dysfunction. This always occurs through the infections of viruses, bacteria and fungi, and the invisible organisms in the environment. Sickness is a symptom of diseases.

SICKNESS: is the quality or state of being sick or diseased; illness. Someone can be sick without disease infection this may be shown due to over labor or rise in temperature or the humidity of an environment and the pollution.

Examples of diseases are cancer, gonorrhea, ebola, Corona, elephantiasis.

Examples of sickness are malaria, headache, stomachache, dysentery.

PREVENTION OF DISEASES AND SICKNESS

  1. Maintain personal hygiene.
  2. Clean and sterilize your tools after use.
  3. Go to the hospital for a medical check-up.
  4. Wash your wears always and avoid pilling up when used or dirty.
  5. Keep your toilet and bathroom clean to avoid infection.
  6. Eat fresh food and fruit and a balanced diet.

SYMPTOMS OF DISEASES AND SICKNESS

  1. Symptoms of lung problems include coughing up blood, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, chronic cough, repeated bouts of bronchitis or pneumonia, and wheezing.
  2. Symptoms of stomach or digestive problems include rectal bleeding, blood in the stool or black stools, changes in bowel habits or not being able to control bowels, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn or acid reflux, or vomiting blood.
  3. Symptoms of skin problems include changes in skin moles, frequent flushing and redness of face and neck, jaundice, skin lesions that don’t go away or heal, new growths or moles on the skin, and thick, red skin with silvery patches.
  4. Symptoms of headache problems (not including everyday tension headaches) include headaches that come on suddenly, “the worst headache of your life,” and headache associated with severe dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and inability to walk.
  5. Symptoms of bladder problems include difficult or painful urination, frequent urination, loss of bladder .

PREVENTIONS

  1. Get restful sleep.

2.Don’t miss health screenings and vaccinations.

3. Quit smoking.

4. Manage blood sugar levels.

5. Watch your body mass.

6. Watch your blood pressure.

  1. Make healthy food choices.

TREATMENT OF DISEASES AND SICKNESS

  1. Use of medical drugs.
  2. Taking of injections.
  3. Eating of a balanced diet.
  4. Body diagnosis.

Evaluation: The teacher asked questions on what has been taught.

  1. explains the meaning of disease/sickness
  2. discusses examples of diseases and sickness caused by harmful substances.
  3. explains symptoms and prevention of diseases and sickness.
  4. explains the treatment of the diseases/sickness.

 

Week: Four Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Plan, Scheme of Work

Class: Primary Three

Topic: Water (water quality)

 

Behavioral objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. list the qualities of good water.
  2. sources of good water.
  3. explains the sources and qualities of bad water.
  4. enumerate the qualities of good water.
  5. enumerate the qualities of bad water.

Instructional material/Reference material:

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge:pupils are familiar with

Content: Water

WATER: water is refer to a liquid substance or clear liquid substance.it is present naturally as rain, and found in rivers, lakes, and seas; its solid form is ice and its gaseous form is steam.

SOURCES OF GOOD WATER

Sources, where water may be obtained, include:

  1. Ground sources such as groundwater, springs, hyporheic zones, and aquifers.
  2. Precipitation includes rain, hail, snow, fog, etc.
  3. Biological sources such as plants.

Desalinated seawater.

Water supply network.

SOURCES OF BAD WATER

  1. Water got from the gutter
  2. Water got from the sea
  3. Water has gotten from erosions and floods.

QUALITIES OF GOOD WATER

  1. Contaminant free
  2. Mineral-rich
  3. Most be hundred percent pure and clean
  4. Good taste.
  5. Odorless

QUALITIES OF BAD WATER

  1. Iritative odor
  2. Dirty in colour
  3. Contains germs
  4. Taste poor

Evaluation: The teacher asked questions on what has been taught.

  1. list the qualities of good water.
  2. sources of good water.
  3. explains the sources and qualities of bad water.
  4. enumerate the qualities of good water.
  5. enumerate the qualities of bad water.

Week: Five

Class: Primary Three Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Plan, Scheme of Work

Topic: Water quality

Behavioural objectives:At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. explains how water is contaminated.
  2. state the dangers of drinking bad water.
  3. importance of drinking good water.
  4. explains ways and how to avoid drinking bad water.

Instructional material/Reference material: Samples of sand, Urine, Dust, Chemicals

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with water, it quality, and it effects.

Content:

Contamination of water: This is when Substances or particles are added to water to make it impure, hazardous, dangerous, and undrinkable for human beings.

The danger of drinking bad water

  1. It causes vomiting
  2. It causes diarrhea
  3. It causes sick stomach or stomach upset
  4. It causes cholera

GOOD WATER

Drinking-Water Helps Maintain the Balance of Body Fluids. Your body is composed of about 60% water. The functions of these bodily fluids include digestion, absorption, circulation, creation of saliva, transportation of nutrients, and maintenance of body temperature.

Benefits of Drinking Good Water

  1. Increases Energy & Relieves Fatigue. Since your brain is mostly water, drinking it helps you think, focus and concentrate better and be more alert.
  2. Promotes Weight Loss.
  3. Flushes Out Toxins.
  4. Improves Skin Complexion.
  5. Maintains Regularity.

Ways of avoiding the drinking of bad water

  1. Filter the water before drinking
  2. Boil the water and let it cool before drinking
  3. Cover your water to avoid contaminants in the water.

Evaluation: The teacher asked questions on what has been taught.

  1. explains how water is contaminated.
  2. state the dangers of drinking bad water.
  3. importance of drinking good water.
  4. explains ways and how to avoid drinking bad water.

Week: Six Basic Science Primary 3 Second Term Lesson Plan, Scheme of Work

Class: Primary Three

Topic: Substance that contaminates water

 

Behavioural objectives: At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:

  1. identify and name some substances that make water unfit for drinking.
  2. explains how dead and decaying animals contaminate water
  3. explains how to contaminate water.
  4. discuss how dumping of refuse in rivers contaminates water.

Instructional material/Reference material: Charts showing ways water can be contaminated, Water contaminated with dust, sand particles

Building Background /connection to prior knowledge: pupils are familiar with water contaminant

Content:

How decay plants and animals contaminate water:

When plants and animals die, they settle to the bottom. Under normal conditions this causes the water body to gradually fill with sediment and organic material and it makes it smell and stink because germs and worms are sedimented and settled in it.

How leaking pipe and underground water contaminated water:

Leaky pipes can allow contaminants into our drinking water. … The pressure in mains water pipes usually forces water out through leaks, preventing anything else from getting in. But when there is a significant pressure drop in a damaged section of pipe, the water surrounding the pipe can be sucked in through the hole. Underground water contamination occurs when man-made products such as gasoline, oil, road salts, and chemicals get into the groundwater and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use. … For example, pesticides and fertilizers can find their way into groundwater supplies over time.

How human waste contaminates water:

Human excreta, urine, and the lack of adequate personal and domestic hygiene have been implicated in the transmission of many infectious diseases including cholera, typhoid, polio. This really leads to contamination of water which is called water disease/waterborne disease.

How dumping of refuse in the river contaminate water:

Organic waste (e.g., wood wastes) can have chemical and biological impacts on rivers and streams. Among the many impacts are interfering with the establishment of aquatic plants, affecting the reproductive behavior of fish and other animals, and depleting the water of dissolved oxygen as the wastes decompose.

Evaluation: The teacher asked questions on what has been taught.

  1. identify and name some substances that make water unfit for drinking.
  2. explains how dead and decaying animals contaminate water
  3. explains how to contaminate water.

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