BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

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AGRIC SCIENCE JSS1 FIRST TERM LESSON PLAN SCHEME OF WORK

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

PRIMARY FIVE

THEME 1: YOU AND THE ENVIRONMENT

WKS      TOPIC

1 Unit I Changes caused by humans activities (pollution)

  1. Unit II Air Pollution
  • Unit Iii Land Pollution
  1. Unit IV Noise Pollution
  1. Unit V Changes around us (Erosion)
  1. Unit VI Changes around us (Erosion)
  2. Unit VII Environmental quality
  3. Unit VIII Environmental Quality
  1. Unit IX Wastes and Waste Disposal
  1. Unit X Waste and Waste Disposal
  2. Unit XI Waste and Waste Disposal
  3. Revision
  4. Examination

WEEK 1&2

POLLUTION

Learning Objectives

At the end of topic should be able to:

  1. Define pollution and list some agents of pollution.
  2. List common causes of pollution
  • Discuss the role of human activities in the degradation of the environment
  1. Identify the causes of pollution on land, water, and air
  2. Suggest ways of reducing pollution of the environment

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing different types of pollution.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes.

CONTENT

Meaning of Pollution

Our environment is our surroundings. It consists of the living (biotic) and non-living (a biotic) elements of our surroundings. The three major components of the environment are physical, biological and socio-economic. The environment contains every essential element which man needs to survive. At the same time, the environment contains potential hazards which pose threats to the existence of man and other living organisms. These hazardous elements are either natural or man-made.

Pollution means making the environment unsafe for plants and animals. When the air, water and land get contaminated” they become serious health hazards and security threats to man and other living organisms.

Pollutants

Pollutants are substances that are capable of contaminating the environment. Pollutants can be in their solid, liquid and gaseous forms

2) Types and Causes of Pollution

Pollution may affect the soil, rivers, seas or the atmosphere. This means that there are many forms or types of pollution with different causes.

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

Types of Pollution

There are three major types of pollution, namely:

  • Land pollution
  • Water pollution and
  • Atmospheric or air pollution

AIR POLLUTION

DUST

When we sweep the floor in our homes or compounds without first sprinkling water on the floor, dust rises into the air. Tractors also raise dust when they are used to cultivate farmland in dry weather. Lorries and cars raise dust as they move on roads, especially untarred roads.

Carbon dioxide

 

Carbon dioxide is passed into the air whenever anything burns in air. Vehicles that use petrol or diesel add a lot of carbon dioxide to the air. The flaring of natural gas also causes the pollution of air with carbon dioxide.

Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide is produced when fuel burns in an insufficient amount of atmospheric oxygen. There are reports of people who have died as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning when they operated their electric generators in homes with closed doors and windows.

Harmful effects of air pollution

  1. Smoke makes us cough and causes tears to flow from our eyes. In Nigeria, packets of cigarettes carry this notice: ‘The Federal Ministry of Health warns that smokers are liable to die young.
  1. Carbon dioxide forms 0.3% of the atmosphere. An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide beyond this level causes the earth to become warmer than it should be. This has bad effects on the weather, e.g. high temperatures, rising of the sea level and strong storms.
  1. Carbon monoxide is poisonous to human beings. Inhaling much carbon monoxide causes death.
  2. Inhaling particles of wood, clay, chalk and other materials leads to disorders in the human breathing system.

Control of air pollution

Air pollution can be controlled in these four major ways:

  1. Provision of good ventilation in homes by having an adequate number of windows.
  2. Sprinkling of water on the floor or land before sweeping it.
  3. Keeping engines in good repair and well-serviced form.
  4. Avoiding operating electric generators in closed rooms.

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK 3&4

Topic: TYPES OF POLLUTION

SUBTOPIC: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND PREVENTION OF POLLUTION

WATER POLLUTION

Causes of water pollution

(i) Untreated sewage released into water bodies.

(ij) Dumping of human faeces, dead animals, etc. into water bodies.

  • Oil spillage i.e. leakages, from oil tanks and pipes, into streams, rivers etc.
  • Industrial effluents (liquid waste from industries) released into water bodies.

Effects of Water Pollution

Harmful effects of water pollution

Polluted water is not good for domestic purposes. It is also not good for some industrial purposes. The reasons are as follows:

  1. Soaps, detergents and various industrial or chemical waste are harmful to human health and to fish used as food by human beings.
  2. Polluted water is unfit for drinking.
  3. Water polluted by crude oil (petroleum) is unfit for swimming or other recreational activities.

 

  1. Petroleum and industrial chemical waste, which kills fish or small water plants and animals that fish eat, negatively affect the fishing industry. In this way, water pollution has made many fishermen jobless
  2. Petroleum and other industrial chemical waste in water may enter farmlands near polluted rivers and make the soil unproductive.

Control of water pollution

The harmful effects of water pollution can be reduced by communities and industries through these measures:

  1. Too much fertilizers should not be applied to farms.

 

  1. Laundries should not empty water containing soap and detergent directly into streams and rivers.
  1. Wastewater containing oil and soap or detergent from homes should be directed into soakaway pits.
  2. Leaking petroleum pipelines, tanks and ships should be repaired promptly.

 

LAND POLLUTION

Pollutants of the land include solid refuse, chemical waste from industries, faeces, and disused bodies of old vehicles and equipment.

Harmful effects of land pollution

The pollution of land is harmful to man in many ways, some of which are as follows:

  1. Abandoned refuse occupies land space and it is not pleasant to look at. It also creates a home for animals that carry disease- causing organisms, such as cockroaches and flies.

 

  1. Houseflies visit faeces left in bushes and may later transfer germs (sticking to their bodies) to uncovered human food.
  1. Bodies of old vehicles, refrigerators and engines may injure children playing in an area where these are abandoned.
  2. Refuse dumped at roadsides may cause vehicle accidents.

11

Control of land pollution

  1. People should use proper latrines or water closets in homes, offices, markets and other public places.
  1. In each home, refuse should be put in dustbins, and carried to proper collection centres, from where they should be sent to proper disposal places.
  1. Materials should be recycled, i.e. waste material should be used again and again, e.g. paper and bottles.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

 

  1. i) Define pollution and list some agents of pollution.
  2. List common causes of pollution
  • Discuss the role of human activities in the degradation of the environment 
  1. Identify the causes of pollution on land, water, and air
  1. Suggest ways of reducing pollution of the environment

WRAP-UP (CONCLUSION)

The teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

ASSIGNMENT

  1. What is pollution? 
  2. Name six different types of pollutants.
  3. Write short notes on different types of pollution.
  4. What are the causes of pollution?
  1. State the economic importance of pollution.
  1. How can you control pollution?

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

WEEK 5

TOPIC: CHANGE AROUND US

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:

A chart showing different types of erosion

REFERENCE MATERIALS

 

Scheme of work

All relevant materials

9-Years Basic Education Curriculum

Online information

BUILDING BACKGROUND/CONNECTION TO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Pupils are familiar with the topic in their previous classes

CONTENT

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

EROSION

 

The wearing away of the surface soil by water or wind is called erosion. Wind and water, which cause erosion, are called agents of erosion.

Effects of erosion

Erosion has several effects on human beings. The following are some of them:

  1. Crops grow in the soil. Yam, maize, potato, guinea corn, cassava, millet, soya beans and other crops absorb chemical substances from the soil. These chemical substances help the crops to remain healthy, grow and produce a high yield. Human beings need a high yield of crops so as to be adequately fed.

Erosion washes away the top soil, and with it the chemical substances that crops require for a good yield. Erosion, therefore, makes the soil poor and reduces the yields of crops.

  1. Erosion may make the land unusable. In certain parts of Nigeria, erosion is a serious problem. Large areas of land have been destroyed by erosion. The surface of the land in such a place is no more even, but is full of deep gulleys. Such a piece of land cannot be used for agriculture or for anything else.

 

  1. Erosion can cause landslides. In the worst cases of erosion, gulleys, which are many metres deep, develop. Near a very deep gulley, a large area of land may suddenly collapse and fall into the gulley. This is called a landslide. When a landslide occurs, nearby houses may also fall into the gulley, leading to loss of lives and property.

Control of erosion

Erosion may be prevented or controlled in several ways. Some of the ways are:

  1. planting of grasses e.g. Bahama grass or carpet grass:

Grasses are planted on playing fields, roadsides and lawns in residential areas to prevent or control erosion. The roots of the grasses bind soil particles together and prevent them from being easily washed away by flowing water or wind.

 

  1. Planting of trees e.g. bamboo or cashew: Trees used in checking erosion are those that have spreading root systems, such as bamboo and cashew. The root systems of the trees bind soil particles together and protect them from being washed or carried away.
  1. Planting of cover crops: Cover crops are plants of the beans family, which are planted on land that has been allowed to fallow in a particular year. Examples are Centrosema, Calapogonium and Styloxanthes gracilis.

 

A cover crop has at least three advantages. Firstly, its leaves protect the soil from the force of raindrops. Secondly, its roots hold soil particles together so that they are not washed away by rain. Thirdly, root nodules in the root system of a cover crop fix nitrogen, thus making the soil more fertile than before.

  1. Making ridges at right angles to the slope of the land: In a farm, ridges are

 

made at right angles to the slope of the land. This prevents run-off water from flowing freely through the farm.

  1. Making crossbars across water channels: In a farm, crossbars are made at

intervals between two neighbouring ridges. This checks the free or fast flow of water through the farm.

  1. Avoidance of bush burning: Bush burning exposes the surface of the soil to erosion. By avoiding bush burning, we prevent or control erosion.

ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION

  1. What is erosion?
  2. Name two agents of erosion.
  3. Explain the harmful effects of erosion on human beings.
  4. Describe four ways of controlling erosion

WRAP-UP (CONCLUSION)

The teacher goes over the topic once again to enhance better understanding.

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM

BASIC SCIENCE PRIMARY 5 FIRST TERM LESSON NOTE / SCHEME OF WORK

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