Lesson Notes / Scheme of work

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Speech Work: Consonant Sounds /l/ and /r/

Comprehension/Vocabulary Development:  The Police

Composition: Expository Essay (Brainstorming)

Literature: Poetry (Types of Poems)

Structure: Verbs (Active Voice)


Aspect: Speech Work

Topic: Consonant Sounds

Sub-topic: Consonant Sounds /l/ and /r/

Consonant Sounds /l/ and /r/

These two sounds are not similar but we shall consider them together in this lesson. When you say /l/ the tip of your tongue makes contact with the alveolar ridge as the air passes the sides of your tongue. It is called lateral and it is voiced. E.g: leak, line, lead, lemon, fill, middle, shall, silly, etc.

Silent: talk, walk, yolk, could, folk, palm, half, should, calm, etc.

/r/ To pronounce this sound, the tip of the tongue comes very near but does not actually touch the alveolar ridge eg. Rate, rock, rag, rank, robe, race, rake, rug, range, ferry, rib, parade, barrel, etc.

Comparison of /l/ and /r/

/l/ /r/
lot rot
lack rack
lag rag
lip rip
loom room
ply pry
bleed breed
blew brew
play pray
flesh fresh
fly fry
flew brown


Aspect: Comprehension/Vocabulary Development

Topic: The Police

Text: NOSEC BOOK 1 Unit 16  Page 145           

The passage is all about the roles that Police plays in fighting against crime in the society. It will help students to be familiar with duties and responsibilities in our society. Some of them are: direction of traffic in the densely populated area, arresting and prosecution of the offender.etc.


Aspect: Composition

Topic: Types of Essay

Sub-topic: Expository Essay (Introduction)

Expository Essay (Introduction)

An expository essay is one in which the writer tries to explain how something works, how something is done or how something is made. Expository essays demand the ‘how of things. Such essays call for explanation of a process or an idea.


  1. What is an expository essay?
  2. What does expository essay demand?

ASSIGNMENT: Explain how to play a local game of your choice to someone who has not seen the game played before.


Aspect: Literature

Topic: Poetry

Sub-topic: Types of Poems

Definition of Poem

A poem is a piece of creative writing that is usually written in verse or stanzas.It can also be defined as imaginative writing in form of stanzas .

Poetry is a collection of poems. It can also be divined as a study of poem.

A collection of poems is known as anthology.

A poet is someone who writes a poem.


  1. What is a poem?
  2. What is poetry?

Types of Poems

These are epic, ode, dirge, sonnet, Ballard, elegy

Epic: A long poem with many exciting adventures .It is a long poem that tells the achievements of heroes.

Ode: A poem written to or about a person or thing.

Dirge: A poem of mourning

(Sonnet): A poem with 14 lines that Rhyme with each other in a fixed pattern.

Ballard: A long poem that tells a story

Elegy: A sad poem especially about someone who has diet


  1. Mention four types of poems
  2. What is an Ode?

The Language of Poetry

This refers to elements of poetry, namely:

  1. Imagery: These are created in poetry by means of figures of speech.
  2. Rhythm: Refers to the alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables.
  3. Sound: This is one of the elements that compose vocal utterance.


  1. Mention 2 element s of poetry
  2. What is sound in poetry?


Aspect: Structure

Topic: Verbs

Sub-topic: Active verbs

Active Verbs

Active voice is when the subject performs the action described by the verb. It is used when the action flows from subject to the object

Assuming Paul performed a particular action which is expressed by a verb; it therefore, means that Paul will be regarded as the doer or performer of the action. In English grammar, Paul will be referred to as the subject and the verb in that sentence will be in the Active voice. For example, Paul wrote a letter.

Here, wrote is in the active voice since the subject of the verb (Paul) is doing the writing.

So, a verb is said to be in the active voice. Examples

  • I saw Paul
  • We ate some mangoes
  • The driver drove the car carelessly.
  • Bola sang the song melodiously.
  • Ade killed a goat.










Speech Work: Vowel Sounds

Structure: Verbs (Active and Passive Voice)

Comprehension: Reading to Follow Direction in Written Communication

Composition: Expository Essay


Aspect: Speech work

Topic: Vowel Sounds

Sub-topic: The Schwa Sound /Ə/

This vowel represents the weak form of a weak a vowel in an unaccented position. It could be used in the weak form of these words like ‘and’ ‘but’  ‘an’ ‘can’. Examples of words where it is prominent are:

again about
baker doctor
colour mother
famous observe
oblige alone
along away


Write twenty other words with /Ə/.


Aspect: Structure

Topic: Verbs

Sub-topics: Active and Passive Voices

A verb is used to express an action or a state of being.  A verb changes its form to mark such categories as tense, aspects, voice etc.

Active Voice

This refers to a situation where the action is done by the subject in the sentence.


(1) The dog chased the postman.

(2) Obi cleaned the blackboard.

Passive Voice

Refers to a case whereby the action is done to the subject in the sentence.


  1. The postman was chased by the dog.
  2. The blackboard was cleaned by Obi.

Making Sentences with Active and Passive Voices

  1. Obi cleaned the blackboard. The blackboard was cleaned by obi.
  2. The dog chased the postman. The postman was chased by the dog.
  3. I wash the clothes. The clothes are washed by me.
  4. The mother feeds the baby. The baby is fed by the mother.
  5. Adana cooks the meals. The meals are cooked by Adana

Highlighting Active Voice

There are two ways to express an ‘action’; active and passive voices.

A sentence in which the logical subject is the same as the grammatical subject is called an active sentence.

Logical subject is the subject that is the one who is actually said to be performing the actions of the verbs. When the subject in a sentence comes before the verb, we call this subject the grammatical subject.


  1. Aisha ate the food.
  2. The girl has beaten the boy.
  3. A carpenter will make the chair.
  4. The police must arrest that thief.
  5. My wife was drawing a picture.
  6. They changed the sentence.
  7. I am kicking a ball.
  8. We read many novels
  9. The boy is eating the food.
  10. We have sent the message.


  1. What is a verb?
  2. Change these sentences to passive voice
  3. The cat ate the fish
  4. Emeka dusts the chairs.


  1. Identify the active voices in the following passage.

Labi was checking through the carton of empty bottles which had been returned from chief Fadaka’s house when he found a paper bag which had slipped between the wrinkled flap and the side of the carton.  He took it out, and to his surprise he found it contained a thick bundle of bank notes of a high denomination, totaling nearly ten thousand naira.

  1. Construct five sentences containing active voice.


Aspect: Comprehension

Topic: Reading to Follow Direction in Written Communication

Another aspect of reading comprehension is the ability to follow direction in written communication. The students should  be able to study map, on which certain directions are given or indicated… at ASCON Topo-your destination.


In your own sentence explain the passage you have just studied.


Aspect: Composition

Topic: Expository Essay

Expository essay explains how something is made or done by following a process. It reveals the secret of doing things. The aim of expository writing is to inform, to instruct or bring someone else to one’s point of view.

Examples of Topics

  1. How to prepare my local food
  2. How to make tie and dye (campala)
  3. How to my local game (ayo)

Elements of Writing

An expository essay is one in which the writer attempts an exposition or explanation of an idea, or how to do or make something.

The elements of writing are:

  1. Introduction
  2. The body of the essay
  3. Conclusion


State the elements of writing.







Speech Work: Nasal Sounds /m/, / n/ /ŋ/

Structure: Verb (Passive Verbs)

Reading Comprehension: Behaviour of Students

Composition: Expository Essay (Arrangement of Ideas in Logical Sequence)

Literature: Structure and themes in Sanyaolu’s ‘Racism’


Aspect: Speech Work

Topic: Nasal Sounds /m/, / n/ /ŋ/

The nasal sounds are produced as a result of closure in the mouth and the air flow escaped through the nose. The examples are stated below;


man, moon, make, name, bomb, claim, frame, lame, damn, hymn, condemn, bomb, comb, dumb, climb, plumb, crumb, grammar, commission, etc.

In the following words, ‘m’ and not ‘b’ is the end sound even though ‘b’ can be seen. It is not pronounced. Plumb,dumb, climb, comb, tomb, bomb, numb, lamb, crumb.

More so, ‘m’ is the end-sound of these words and not ‘n’. Hymn, condemn, solemn.


name, nose, neck, new, note, stone, brain, gnash, gnat, gnaw, know, knowledge, knot, knit, knew, manner, banner, nanny, funnel, cranny, etc.

When ‘n’ is used after ‘m’ at word final positions, it is not pronounced. Examples: damn, hymn, condemn, column.

When ‘n’ is used after ‘k’ at word beginnings, it is pronounced while ‘k’ is silent. Examples: know, knot, knew, knit, etc.

When ‘n’ is placed after ‘g’ at word beginnings, it is pronounced while ‘g’ is silent. Examples: gnash, gnaw, gnat, etc.


sing,  king, ring, bank,  bring, ink, spring, song, hang, tongue, bang, plank, bangle, anxious, drink, function, precinct, minx, etc.

Aspect: Structure

Topic: Verb (Passive Verbs)

Passive Structure

This is when the sentence is reversed from the object form to subject form. E.g. A ball is kicked by me.

Present Simple Tense

(a) Active: I kick a ball.

(b) Passive: A ball is kicked by me.

(a) Active: He writes two letters.

(b) Passive: Two letters are written by him.

Past Tense

(a) Active: I kicked the ball.

(b) Passive: The ball was kicked by me.

(a) Active: The boy wrote a letter.

(b) Passive: A letter was written by the boy

Present Continuous Tense

(a) Active: I am kicking a ball.

(b) Passive: A ball is being kicked by me.

(a) Active: He is writing two letters.

(b) Passive: Two letters are being written by him.

Present Perfect Tense

(a) Active: I have kicked the ball.

(b) Passive: The ball has been kicked by me.

(a) Active: He has written two letters.

(b) Passive: Two letters have been written by him.


Aspect: Reading Comprehension

Topic: Behaviour of Students

Text: NOSEC Book 1 page 162-163.

Extract: The behaviour of some students nowadays gives us a lot of concern. I cannot just understand why they choose to mis-behaviour…he referred to as his brothers and sisters.


In your own opinion briefly discuss your experience on behaviour of students in your class during lesson.


Aspect: Composition

Topic: Expository Essay (Arrangement of Ideas in Logical Sequence)

  1. Title of essay
  2. Introduction
  3. Body of the essay
  4. Conclusion

Expository essay tells us how things are done through description of a process.

Before you start writing, you need to understand the topic very well, think deeply about it (brainstorming) and then itemize the points to be discussed. Then re-arrange the points in a logical manner. The paragraph must be fully developed.


Discuss this topic in the class with your classmates: The Evil of Unemployment in My Country.

You may use the following points as guidelines in developing your composition (essay). Discuss each point in one paragraph. Some common problems associated with unemployment are:


Armed robbery

Hired assassination


Affliction by diseases

Broken marriages

Untimely death (e.g. suicide)


Paragraph Linkers: Also, But, However, Meanwhile, Apart from these, In addition to these etc.

Use any three of these points to develop the body of your essay.


Aspect: Literature

Topic: Structure and themes in Sanyaolu’s ‘Racism’



Speech Work: Stress

Structure: Verbs (Active and Passive Voice)

Comprehension: The Taxi Driver

Composition: Expository Essay (Arrangement of Ideas in Logical Sequence)

Literature: Poetry


Aspect: Speech work

Topic: Stress

Sub-topic: Introduction to Stress

Stress, in English Language is the extra force (emphasis) placed on the part of a word to receives strong pronunciation than the other. In English the part or chunk that the word is divisible into is called syllable. Therefore, a particular syllable (sound unit) that is pronounced more than the other is called the stressed syllable. In speech, stress helps us to differentiate the meaning of a word that has the same spelling but different meaning and belong to different part of speech.

NOTE: A noun is stressed  in the first syllable and verb is stressed on the second syllable of two syllable words.

Noun Verb
IM-port im-PORT
EX-port ex-PORT
CON-duct con-DUCT
ES-cort es-CORT

NOTE: A one-syllable word cannot be stressed in English because it has only one syllable; stress can only start from two syllables.

Pronounce these words: EN-ter, O-pen, PA-per, MO-ney, BO-rrow, a-LIVE, di-VINE, a-PPLY, be-WARE, en-JOY, etc.


  1. Define stress in your own word.
  2. What is the part that pronounced more the other called?
  3. Give examples of stressed words.


Aspect: Structure

Topic: Verbs

Verbs are the action words in sentences.

Active structure is when the action is performed by the subject. Ee.g. I kick a ball.

Examples of active verbs are come, sit, stand, write, do, kick, draw, eat, etc.

Highlighting the Rules of Passive Voice

Passive voice is when the object of a sentence takes the place of the subject and the subject is placed in the position of the object while the verb “be” is used with the past participle. For example, “Mary beat the boy “(active voice) becomes “The boy was beaten by Mary (passive voice).

In the active voice, “Mary” is the subject of the sentence while “the boy” is the subject (grammatical) in the passive voice though the sentences mean the same thing. The verb “be” comprises “is, are, was and were”. More examples:

  1. I saw Paul (Active voice).
  2. Paul was seen by me (Passive voice).
  3. We ate some mangoes (Active voice).
  4. Some mangoes were eaten by us (Passive voice).

(a) Now, take note of the changes that usually occur while writing passive sentences from active ones. Object form of the subject.

Active Passive
I me
he him
she her
we us
they them

(b) The verbs also change apart from above pronouns.

Active Passive
saw seen
ate eaten
wrote written
drove driven
sang sung



  1. Define passive verb.

Lesson Notes

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