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Introduction to Basic Science

Family Health: Sanitation

Family Health: Refuse and Sewage

Family Health: Nutrition

Family Health: Drug

Classification of Drug; Drug Abuse

Environmental Pollution: Water Pollution

Air Pollution

Land or Soil Pollution

Basic Science Upper Basic 7 First Term Examinations (Mock)




  1. Definition of Science
  2. How to Study Science
  3. The Branches of Science
  4. Uses of Science


Definition of Science

Science is the systematic study of nature. Basic science is a subject that introduces sciences to mankind.

How to Study Science

Science is studied through the following ways:

  1. Observation
  2. Sorting
  3. Experimentation
  4. Recording of result gotten from experiment
  5. Conclusions

The Branches of Science

Science can be divided into different branches based on what they studied such as:

  1. Life Sciences: This area deals with the study of living things e.g. biology, botany, zoology etc.
  2. Physical Sciences: This area deals with study of matter and energy e.g. physics, chemistry and astronomy
  3. Earth Sciences: It studies about the structures and compositions of the earth e.g. geography and geology

Uses of Science

These are the importance and benefits of science to human beings. Such as its uses in:

  1. Medicine to cure and prevent diseases
  2. Engineering and Technology e.g. production of cars, phones, books etc.
  3. Construction e.g. skyscrapers, bridges, houses etc.
  4. Agriculture
  5. Communication



  1. What is science?
  2. Highlight the methods of studying science.
  3. List 4 uses of science.






  1. The Meaning of Sanitation
  2. Types of Sanitation
  3. How to Carry Out Personal Cleanliness
  4. Advantages of Observing Personal Cleanliness
  5. Disadvantages of Not Observing Personal Cleanliness
  6. The Importance of Sanitation


The Meaning of Sanitation

Sanitation is the removal of all kinds of waste that could be considered unpleasant from our immediate environment, in order to keep ourselves and our environment clean and healthy.

Types of Sanitation

The types of sanitation are as follows:

(i) Environmental Sanitation: This refers to the practice or ways of keeping our surrounding clean and healthy by removing all kinds of waste from our rooms, toilets, bathrooms, kitchens and surroundings such as markets, schools etc.

(ii) Personal cleanliness: This is the keeping of one’s body and personal belongings neat, clean and tidy always. Personal cleanliness is important for health because it prevents very tiny organisms (micro-organisms) which can cause diseases.


How to Carry Out Personal Cleanliness

We can carry out personal cleanliness by doing the following:

(i) Cleanliness of the hair: The hair should be washed, combed and plaited or barbed.

(ii) Cleanliness of the skin: The skin should be cleaned by bathing at least twice a day using water, sponge and soap.

(iii) Cleanliness of the teeth: The mouth should be brushed at least twice a day.

(iv) Cleanliness of clothes: Our clothes should be washed and dried in the sun to remove sweat and dirt.

(v) Cleanliness of hands and nails: Hands should be washed regularly and nails should be cut to prevent micro-organisms.


Brushing Teeth

Advantages of Observing Personal Cleanliness

The advantages of not observing personal cleanliness include:

When personal cleanliness is observed, we enjoy the following:

(i) You look attractive and beautiful.

(ii) You will be lively and healthy.

(iii) You will be emotionally balanced

(iv) You will be regular and punctual at school and at work.

(v) One will be socially acceptable.

(vi) Germs will not breed on your food or other edible materials.

(vi) The brain will be at alert.


Disadvantages of Not Observing Personal Cleanliness

The disadvantages of not observing personal cleanliness include:

(i) Poor health

(ii) Spread of diseases

(iii) Death

(iv) Emotional instability

(v) Low self-esteem among others

(vi) Money will be wasted on drugs and hospital.


The Importance of Sanitation

The following are the importance of sanitation:

(i) It prevents and creates awareness of diseases.

(ii) It makes for proper disposal of refuse in the community (village, town, city).

(iii) It enables us to engage in activities that would help us to maintain the balance in nature.

(iv) It encourages recycling of refuse, and using it to make compost and manure.

(v) It facilitate proper disposal of waste in the community.



  1. What is sanitation?
  2. State 3 importance of sanitation.
  3. List 5 ways of carrying out personal cleanliness.





  1. Meaning of Refuse and Sewage
  2. Methods of Refuse Disposal
  3. Cleaning Tools and Agents


Meaning of Refuse and Sewage

Refuse is a solid waste whether dry or wet which could cause land pollution e.g. nylon, paper, plastic, broken bottles, scraps, etc. Refuse wastes materials could be divided into 2 namely: biodegradable and non-biodegradable.

Biodegradable materials are materials that can decompose or decay e.g. banana peels, dead leaves, dead animals, etc.

Non-biodegradable things are materials that cannot be decomposed or decay e.g. metals, plastics, broken bottles, etc.

Sewage is a liquid waste from the environment e.g. faeces, urine, wasted water from kitchens, bathrooms, etc.

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